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Categories: Birth Defects, Eating Disorder Research

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Birth Defects
Published

Fish reveal cause of altered human facial development      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Some substances in medicines, household items and the environment are known to affect prenatal child development. Researchers tested the effects of five drugs (including caffeine and the blood thinner warfarin) on the growth of zebrafish embryos. They found that all five had the same effect, impairing the migration of bone-forming cells which resulted in the onset of facial malformation. Zebrafish embryos grow quickly, are transparent and develop outside of the parent's body, making them ideal for studying early development. A zebrafish-based system could be used to easily screen for potentially harmful substances, reducing animal testing on mammals and supporting parents-to-be when making choices for themselves and their baby.

Birth Defects Child Development Parenting Psychology Research
Published

Exposure to plasticizers in pregnancy associated with smaller volumetric measures in the brain and lower IQ in children      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A study with 775 mother-child pairs in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) finds an association with maternal exposure to certain plasticizers (phthalates) and smaller volumetric measures in the brain of children as well as lower IQ at age 14

Birth Defects
Published

Researchers identify inherited gene mutation linked to esophageal cancer      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Studying genes in families with a propensity for certain diseases has led to many critical advances in medicine, including the discovery of statins in family members who suffered heart attacks at an early age. Now, a team of researchers has identified an inherited mutation in a gene linked to a highly lethal cancer of what is commonly known as the food pipe, called esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).

Birth Defects Parenting
Published

Understanding and treating pain in children      (via sciencedaily.com)     Original source 

It is often hard to understand the source of pain in babies and children, and if they experience it often or for a long time, it can do severe damage.

Birth Defects Child Development Infant and Preschool Learning Parenting
Published

Intellectual disability more common in families with substance use disorder      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Children of a parent with alcohol or drug use disorder have a greater risk of intellectual disability, even if the problem only lies with the father, researchers report. According to the study, preventive measures should be directed at both parents.

Birth Defects
Published

Study illuminates mechanism that annotates genetic information passed from fathers to offspring      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Scientists have identified a key part of a mechanism that annotates genetic information before it is passed from fathers to their offspring. The findings shed new light on genomic imprinting, a fundamental, biological process in which a gene from one parent is switched off while the copy from the other parent remains active. Errors in imprinting are linked to a host of diseases, such as the rare disease Silver-Russell syndrome along with certain cancers and diabetes.

Birth Defects
Published

Di-isononyl phthalate disrupts pregnancy in mice, study finds      (via sciencedaily.com) 

In a new study, researchers used mice to understand how DiNP affects pregnancy.

Birth Defects Psychology Research
Published

T-cells infiltrate brain, cause respiratory distress in condition affecting the immunocompromised      (via sciencedaily.com) 

When an immunocompromised person's system begins to recover and produce more white blood cells, it's usually a good thing -- unless they develop C-IRIS, a potentially deadly inflammatory condition. New research has found that the pulmonary distress often associated with C-IRIS is caused not by damage to the lungs, but by newly populated T-cells infiltrating the brain. Knowing this mechanism of action can help researchers and physicians better understand the illness and provide new treatment targets.

Birth Defects Dietary Supplements and Minerals
Published

Preterm babies given certain fatty acids have better vision      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Preterm babies given a supplement with a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have better visual function by the age of two and a half.

Birth Defects
Published

Study uncovers potential new source of genetic mutations that cause neurodegenerative disease      (via sciencedaily.com) 

An international team of scientists has discovered an additional potential cause of the genetic mutations that result in rare neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease.

Birth Defects Schizophrenia
Published

Schizophrenia genetic risk factor impairs mitochondrial function      (via sciencedaily.com)     Original source 

Researcher discovers possible link of mitochondrial function to the development of schizophrenia.

Birth Defects Child Development
Published

Scientists reveal two paths to autism in the developing brain      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Two distinct neurodevelopmental abnormalities that arise just weeks after the start of brain development have been associated with the emergence of autism spectrum disorder, according to a new study in which researchers developed brain organoids from the stem cells of boys diagnosed with the disorder.

Birth Defects Chronic Illness
Published

Prenatal diagnosis matters: Linked to earlier surgery for congenital heart disease      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A study has shown that prenatal diagnosis, or diagnosis before a baby is born, is associated with earlier surgery for babies with congenital heart defects, the most common birth defects affecting nearly 1% of all live births. The association was demonstrated for critical defects (when heart surgery is required before the infant leaves the hospital) and certain types of noncritical defects, which constitute about 75% of all congenital heart defects.

Birth Defects
Published

Unlocking a mystery of fetal development      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A new study of cadmium in pregnant women yields crucial insights into the placenta's role in regulating toxin exposure.

Birth Defects Child Development Infant and Preschool Learning Parenting
Published

Hardship affects the gut microbiome across generations      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A new study has shown that hardship experienced by mothers during their own childhood or during pregnancy is reflected in the composition of their 2-year-old children's gut microbiome. It was previously understood that in rodents, prenatal stress affects microbiomes into adulthood, but how long after birth the effects lasted in humans was unknown. The changes to this community of microorganisms are likely among the ways that hardship affects a child's socioemotional development.

Birth Defects
Published

New scanning methods can detect deadly heart condition before symptoms appear      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Combining two types of heart scan techniques could help doctors to detect the deadly heart condition hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) before symptoms and signs on conventional tests appear.

Birth Defects
Published

Researchers map morphing placenta      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Researchers lead a study showing the cellular detail of how the placenta changes during pregnancy.

Birth Defects
Published

Bacterial protein found in the urogenital tract may contribute to reduced fertility, birth defects      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A team of researchers published new findings that emphasize the crucial role of the urinary and genital tract microbiota in adverse pregnancy outcomes and genomic instability that originate in the womb during fetal development. The study established a new link between genomic instability and a protein from Mycoplasma fermentans, a kind of bacterium that commonly colonizes the urogenital tract. This bacterial protein also reduced fertility in mother mice and resulted in more birth defects in their newborn pups.

Birth Defects
Published

Researchers develop¬†AI model to better predict which drugs may cause birth defects      (via sciencedaily.com) 

Data scientists have created an artificial intelligence model that may more accurately predict which existing medicines, not currently classified as harmful, may in fact lead to congenital disabilities. The model, or 'knowledge graph,' also has the potential to predict the involvement of pre-clinical compounds that may harm the developing fetus. The study is the first known of its kind to use knowledge graphs to integrate various data types to investigate the causes of congenital disabilities.

Birth Defects
Published

New study shows anti-inflammatory drugs as a promising target for Alzheimer's disease      (via sciencedaily.com) 

A recent study centers around the idea that various anti-inflammatory drugs could be effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease. This study focused on a protein known as p38. Many labs have been working with this protein as a potential target for drug development to treat Alzheimer's disease and other conditions with neuroinflammatory dysfunction.