Showing 20 articles starting at article 1
Published Fish reveal cause of altered human facial development (via sciencedaily.com)
Some substances in medicines, household items and the environment are known to affect prenatal child development. Researchers tested the effects of five drugs (including caffeine and the blood thinner warfarin) on the growth of zebrafish embryos. They found that all five had the same effect, impairing the migration of bone-forming cells which resulted in the onset of facial malformation. Zebrafish embryos grow quickly, are transparent and develop outside of the parent's body, making them ideal for studying early development. A zebrafish-based system could be used to easily screen for potentially harmful substances, reducing animal testing on mammals and supporting parents-to-be when making choices for themselves and their baby.
Published Exposure to plasticizers in pregnancy associated with smaller volumetric measures in the brain and lower IQ in children (via sciencedaily.com)
A study with 775 mother-child pairs in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) finds an association with maternal exposure to certain plasticizers (phthalates) and smaller volumetric measures in the brain of children as well as lower IQ at age 14
Published Researchers identify inherited gene mutation linked to esophageal cancer (via sciencedaily.com)
Studying genes in families with a propensity for certain diseases has led to many critical advances in medicine, including the discovery of statins in family members who suffered heart attacks at an early age. Now, a team of researchers has identified an inherited mutation in a gene linked to a highly lethal cancer of what is commonly known as the food pipe, called esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
Published Understanding and treating pain in children (via sciencedaily.com) Original source
It is often hard to understand the source of pain in babies and children, and if they experience it often or for a long time, it can do severe damage.
Published Your body's own cannabinoid molecules calm you during stress (via sciencedaily.com)
When you're under stress, your brain may release its own cannabinoid molecules to calm you, activating the same brain receptors as THC derived from cannabis plants. But the brain activity regulated by these cannabinoid molecules were not well known. A new study in mice has discovered a key emotional brain center, the amygdala, releases cannabinoid molecules under stress that dampen the incoming stress alarm from the hippocampus, a memory and emotion center in the brain. The finding may reveal novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of stress-related disorders.
Published Intellectual disability more common in families with substance use disorder (via sciencedaily.com)
Children of a parent with alcohol or drug use disorder have a greater risk of intellectual disability, even if the problem only lies with the father, researchers report. According to the study, preventive measures should be directed at both parents.
Published Study illuminates mechanism that annotates genetic information passed from fathers to offspring (via sciencedaily.com)
Scientists have identified a key part of a mechanism that annotates genetic information before it is passed from fathers to their offspring. The findings shed new light on genomic imprinting, a fundamental, biological process in which a gene from one parent is switched off while the copy from the other parent remains active. Errors in imprinting are linked to a host of diseases, such as the rare disease Silver-Russell syndrome along with certain cancers and diabetes.
Published Lower jersey numbers make football players look thinner (via sciencedaily.com)
Football players sometimes choose jerseys with lower numbers thinking that they'll look slimmer and faster. There's a scientific basis for that belief, according to a new study. In two experiments, volunteers consistently said that images of players in jerseys numbered 10 to 19 looked thinner than players in jerseys numbered 80 to 89, even when the bodies were the same size. The finding suggests that people's previously learned associations between numbers and sizes influence their perceptions of body size.
Published Di-isononyl phthalate disrupts pregnancy in mice, study finds (via sciencedaily.com)
In a new study, researchers used mice to understand how DiNP affects pregnancy.
Published Breathe! The shape-shifting ball that supports mental health (via sciencedaily.com)
A soft ball designed to support mental health by 'personifying' breath has been invented by a computer science student.
Published T-cells infiltrate brain, cause respiratory distress in condition affecting the immunocompromised (via sciencedaily.com)
When an immunocompromised person's system begins to recover and produce more white blood cells, it's usually a good thing -- unless they develop C-IRIS, a potentially deadly inflammatory condition. New research has found that the pulmonary distress often associated with C-IRIS is caused not by damage to the lungs, but by newly populated T-cells infiltrating the brain. Knowing this mechanism of action can help researchers and physicians better understand the illness and provide new treatment targets.
Published Preterm babies given certain fatty acids have better vision (via sciencedaily.com)
Preterm babies given a supplement with a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids have better visual function by the age of two and a half.
Published Study uncovers potential new source of genetic mutations that cause neurodegenerative disease (via sciencedaily.com)
An international team of scientists has discovered an additional potential cause of the genetic mutations that result in rare neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease.
Published Schizophrenia genetic risk factor impairs mitochondrial function (via sciencedaily.com) Original source
Researcher discovers possible link of mitochondrial function to the development of schizophrenia.
Published Scientists reveal two paths to autism in the developing brain (via sciencedaily.com)
Two distinct neurodevelopmental abnormalities that arise just weeks after the start of brain development have been associated with the emergence of autism spectrum disorder, according to a new study in which researchers developed brain organoids from the stem cells of boys diagnosed with the disorder.
Published Prenatal diagnosis matters: Linked to earlier surgery for congenital heart disease (via sciencedaily.com)
A study has shown that prenatal diagnosis, or diagnosis before a baby is born, is associated with earlier surgery for babies with congenital heart defects, the most common birth defects affecting nearly 1% of all live births. The association was demonstrated for critical defects (when heart surgery is required before the infant leaves the hospital) and certain types of noncritical defects, which constitute about 75% of all congenital heart defects.
Published Research team identifies human odorant receptor for horse stable odor (via sciencedaily.com)
Para-cresol is an aromatic compound with a strong horse stable-like odor. It contributes to the off-flavor of some foods, but it is also detectable as a characteristic odorant in whiskey and tobacco, as well as in the urine of various mammals. A research team has now discovered which odorant receptor humans use to perceive para-cresol.
Published Unlocking a mystery of fetal development (via sciencedaily.com)
A new study of cadmium in pregnant women yields crucial insights into the placenta's role in regulating toxin exposure.
Published Hardship affects the gut microbiome across generations (via sciencedaily.com)
A new study has shown that hardship experienced by mothers during their own childhood or during pregnancy is reflected in the composition of their 2-year-old children's gut microbiome. It was previously understood that in rodents, prenatal stress affects microbiomes into adulthood, but how long after birth the effects lasted in humans was unknown. The changes to this community of microorganisms are likely among the ways that hardship affects a child's socioemotional development.
Published New scanning methods can detect deadly heart condition before symptoms appear (via sciencedaily.com)
Combining two types of heart scan techniques could help doctors to detect the deadly heart condition hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) before symptoms and signs on conventional tests appear.